The immediate big winner from the decision would be Tesla, which has already negotiated for a site in the Shanghai area to build cars but has been reluctant to accept a joint venture partner. Going into the Chinese market alone would mean that Tesla could keep better control of its technology and retain all the profits.

Still, that means Tesla would have to foot the entire investment cost as well, instead of sharing it with a local partner. Other automakers have learned to work with their Chinese partners to smooth over potential political and labor issues and invest in new facilities together.

“They don’t need to negotiate with any party, but the bad news is they have to invest 100 percent of their own money,” said Yale Zhang, the managing director of Automotive Foresight, a Shanghai consulting firm, referring to Tesla.

In coming years, the rule requiring a Chinese partner will be lifted for the rest of the auto industry, according to the planning agency, the National Development and Reform Commission. It said in a statement that it would end the rule this year for the production of new energy cars in China, in 2020 for the production of trucks and other commercial vehicles and in 2022 for all cars made in China.

The sorghum duties are part of an anti-dumping case that had first been disclosed two months ago as tensions rose with the Trump administration over American plans for tariffs on imported steel and other goods. China imported $957 million worth of American sorghum last year, using it for livestock feed and for making a popular liquor, baijiu.

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