Two of those arrested died in prison in the aftermath of the protests, in what officials said were suicides. Protesters say the two men were killed.

Mr. Amoli-Larijani is the highest judicial authority in the country. His brother, Ali Larijani, is the speaker of the Parliament.

Iran’s Foreign Ministry said Saturday that the Trump administration had “crossed a red line of international behavior” by imposing sanctions against Mr. Amoli-Larijani. The ministry said that the decision went against international law and that the action would receive a “serious response” from Iran.

Mr. Trump’s ultimatum comes at a time when Iran’s economy is struggling, and the nuclear deal has not delivered on the promises made by Iran’s president, Hassan Rouhani, for economic improvement.

“Naturally, officials are nervous over what the impact would be if Trump withdraws from the deal,” said Nader Karimi Joni, a reformist journalist. “They fear the local currency could devaluate even further and prices could rise, if that is to happen.”

The agreement Mr. Trump wants to make with the Europeans should also involve Iran’s long-range missile program, the White House said on Friday. Iran’s military heavily relies on missiles as a deterrent; one of Iran’s regional competitors, Saudi Arabia, purchased more than $110 billion in weaponry from the United States in 2017. Iranian officials have said they are not considering making the missile program negotiable.

One hard-liner, Hamidreza Taraghi, said he was not afraid that Mr. Trump’s ultimatum would lead to a collapse of the agreement.

“He is a man who often changes his opinions,” said Mr. Taraghi, an analyst and politician. “Now he wants to send the ball in the Europeans’ court, so that if he fails to do anything against Iran, he will be able to say it is Europe’s shortcoming.”

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