Mr. Abbas has repeatedly stated in the past that he does not want a third intifada on his watch, and the calls from Hamas underscored the abiding internal divisions.

As Israelis went about their business in Jerusalem on Thursday, there were few visible signs of celebration; for many, Mr. Trump had only affirmed a longstanding reality.

Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu of Israel hailed the announcement from Washington. “President Trump has inscribed himself in the annals of our capital for all time,” he said at a conference at the Israeli Foreign Ministry. “His name will now be linked to the names of others in the context of the glorious history of Jerusalem and our people.”

Mr. Netanyahu said Israel was in contact with other countries to persuade them to recognize Jerusalem as Israel’s capital, too. “ It’s about time,” he said.

In cities across the West Bank, Palestinians responded to calls from minarets to protest. Hundreds of youths made their way toward a checkpoint on the edge of Ramallah, a frequent site of clashes. In Gaza, youths protested along the border fence, rallied in a central Gaza City park and burned tires in a refugee camp.

Salwa Helis, 32, took a group of orphans she teaches to the demonstration in the park, where they held Palestinian flags and banners against the backdrop of a large poster of Jerusalem, a city that is out of reach for most Gazans.

“I can’t carry a weapon to shoot or launch rockets at Israelis,” she said. “That’s why I am here protesting against Trump’s resolution by shouting solidarity slogans for Jerusalem as the eternal capital of Palestine.”

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